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# Intro to Analyzing Log Data with CloudWatch Logs Insights

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To quote AWS docs:

CloudWatch Logs Insights enables you to interactively search and analyze your log data in Amazon CloudWatch Logs. You can perform queries to help you more efficiently and effectively respond to operational issues. If an issue occurs, you can use CloudWatch Logs Insights to identify potential causes and validate deployed fixes.

• A single request can query up to 20 log groups
• Query results are available for 7 days
• Queries time out after 15 minutes

## Supported Logs and Discovered Fields

For every log sent to CloudWatch Logs, five system fields are automatically generated:

• @message contains the raw unparsed log event.
• @timestamp contains the event timestamp contained in the log event's timestamp field.
• @ingestionTime contains the time when the log event was received by CloudWatch Logs.
• @logStream contains the name of the log stream that the log event was added to. Log streams are used to group logs by the same process that generated them.
• @log is a log group identifier in the form of account-id:log-group-name. This can be useful in queries of multiple log groups, to identify which log group a particular event belongs to.

For every log type (e.g. Lambda logs) CloudWatch Logs Insights discovers additional log fields, example for Lambda:

@timestamp, @logStream, @message, @requestId, @duration, @billedDuration, @type, @maxMemoryUsed, @memorySize

and additional X-Ray fields (where applicable)

• It's possible to limit the number of results using limit command (head and tail are also available but they're getting deprecated in favour of limit)
• SHIFT + ENTER runs a query
• We can use filter command to, well, filter the results (make sure to use | operator between commands), example:
filter event.body.name="hello_world"
| fields @timestamp, @message, event.body.name
| limit 20

• We can use stats command to run an aggregation query, e.g. finding a number of log events in the log group that were received by CloudWatch Logs that contain each different value for the field name of our choosing:
stats count(*) by event.body.name


Show the number of log events in the log group that were received by CloudWatch Logs for each 30-second period.

stats count(*) by bin(30s)


The following query filters only the log messages containing Received response:

fields @timestamp, @message
| filter @message like 'Received response.'
| sort @timestamp desc


More sample queries: https://marbot.io/blog/analyze-cloudwatch-logs-like-a-pro.html

## Commands

• display - Defines the fields to display in a query. You should only use this command once per query since only the last display command is applied.
• fields - Lists the available fields for display from a log. You can also use this command, along with supported operations or functions to create new fields for the query or modify field values.
• filter - Enables you to filter your query according to defined conditions.
• stats - Aggregates statistics of your field values. With this command you can specify groups of values to aggregate by.
• sort - Enables you to sort your returned values in either descending or ascending order.
• limit - Enables you to restrict how many values are returned by your query.
• parse - Enables you to extract data from queried fields for additional queries. This command works with regular and glob expressions.

### parse command:

Using this single log line as an example: 25 May 2019 10:24:39,474 [ERROR] {foo=2, bar=data} The error was: DataIntegrityException

The following two parse expressions each do the following: the ephemeral fields level, config, and exception are created. level has a value of ERROR, config has a value of {foo=2, bar=data}, and exception has a value of DataIntegrityException. The first example uses a glob expression, and the second uses a regular expression.

• parse @message "[*] * The error was: *" as level, config, exception

• parse @message /$(?<level>\S+)$\s+(?<config>\{.*\})\s+The error was: (?<exception>\S+)/

## The difference between fields and display

From the docs:

Both fields and display are used to specify the fields to display in the query results. The differences between the two are as follows:

• You use the display command only to specify which fields to display in the results. You can use the fields command with the as keyword to create new ephemeral fields using functions and the fields that are in the log event. For example, fields ispresent(resolverArn) as isRes creates an ephemeral field named isRes which can be used in the remainder of the query. The value of isRes is either 0 or 1 depending on whether or not resolverArn is a discovered field in the log event.
• If you have multiple fields commands and do not include a display command, the fields specified in all of the fields commands are displayed.

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